Abstract Introduction: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the gold standard procedure for large renal calculi but postoperative (PO) pain remains a concern. Modifications of the PCNL technique and intraoperative and PO strategies have been tested to reduce pain. PO pain control reducing risk of long-term pain medication and narcotic use is of considerable importance. Acupuncture is...

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Journal of Endourology

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